Pegasus Spyware.

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News: Recently a list of 1,000 Indian phone numbers has come to the forefront when it was found Israel made Pegasus Spyware was spying on some of the most influential people in India. Read news here

What is Pegasus Spyware (upsc context)

The Pegasus Spyware as the name suggests is spyware or surveillance software to keep a close eye on the people on whom the spyware is targeted. It is created by the Israeli cyber intelligence firm the NSO group. The NSO Group is a reputed firm to build such technology and software in order to sell it to authentic leaders and governments with the sole purpose of tackling terrorism and violence with the ultimate objective of saving the lives of innocent citizens. Pegasus is software that is created to access your phone without your consent and gather personal and sensitive information and deliver it to the user that is spying on you. Read more in Science & Tech section here.

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What are different types of Malware?

  1. Ransomware: Ransome in hindi translates to फिरौती. The ransomware is a software which uses encryption to disable a target’s access to its data until a ransom is paid.
  2. Spyware: The Spyware is a malicious software which is used to spy on. The information collected is email, passwords location, messages sent-received and any and all critical data. The use of this spyware is not just limited to desktop but has increased its volume over the years through its mobile version.
  3. Trojan: A Trojan superficially looks as a safe code or software to download. Once downloaded by unsuspecting users, it can take control of victims’ systems and use for malicious activities. Trojans may hide in games, apps, or even softwares, or they may be embedded in attachments included in phishing emails.
  4. Virus: A virus is a piece of code that inserts itself into an application and executes when the app is running. Once inside a network, a virus may be used to steal sensitive data, or even conduct ransomware attacks.

There are also other types of Malwares like adware, worm, rootkit, etc but they are not that important for the UPSC preparation. But in case you want to know more about them Read the article here.

MCQ’s related to Cyber security:

Eventbot is

A). A malware that targets financial applications

B.)Super Computer


D.) A new strain of coronavirus

Ans: ( A) It is a Banking malware

Which of the following is considered as the unsolicited commercial email?

  1. Virus
  2. Malware
  3. Spam
  4. All of the above

Ans: (3)

Which of the following usually observe each activity on the internet of the victim, gather all information in the background, and send it to someone else?

  1. Malware
  2. Spyware
  3. Adware
  4. All of the above


_______ is a type of software designed to help the user’s computer detect viruses and avoid them.

  1. Malware
  2. Adware
  3. Antivirus
  4. Both B and C

Ans( 3)

Which of the following refers to stealing one’s idea or invention of others and use it for their own benefits?

  1. Piracy
  2. Plagiarism
  3. Intellectual property rights
  4. All of the above

Ans: (4)

Which of the following are famous and common cyber-attacks used by hackers to infiltrate the user’s system?

  1. DDos and Derive-by Downloads
  2. Malware & Malvertising
  3. Phishing and Password attacks
  4. All of the above

Ans( 4)


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